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Art and Art History

B.F.A. Degree with a Major in Studio Art
B.F.A. Degree with a Major in Graphic Design
B.F.A. Degree with a Major in Art (Art Education emphasis)
Departmental Requirements
Transfer Students
Declaration of a Major
Student Exhibitions
Suggested Courses
Bachelor of Arts
Honors Program
Courses of Instruction

(ART), (ARHI)

Available on the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree with a major in Studio Art, Art Education and Graphic Design.

Available on the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in Art History.

All art courses taken in the major or minor sequences must be passed with a grade of "C" or better to fulfill graduation requirements.

Bachelor of Fine Arts. The B.F.A. degree is available in Studio Art with concentration in Painting, Photography, Printmaking, or Sculpture; Graphic Design; and Art Education. The degree requires a minimum of 124 hours inclusive of the 47 semester hours of general University requirements. A minimum of 60 semester hours in Art is required except for Art Education majors who must complete a minimum of 54 semester hours of Art. The various degree plans are outlined below.

B.F.A. Degree with a Major in Studio Art (Painting, Photography, Printmaking, or Sculpture)

University Curriculum Requirements (Includes ARHI 10053, 10063) 47

Art Requirements:

Drawing (10103, 10113) 9
Design (10123, 10133) 6
Painting (20143) 3
Printmaking (20163/20173/20183) 3
Sculpture (20243) 3
Photography (20743) 3
Art History 6
Major Studio Area 17
Senior Exhibition (40991) 1
Art Professions (30903) 3
Art Elective 3
Electives 23
Total 124


B.F.A. Degree with a Major in Graphic Design

University Curriculum Requirements
(includes ARHI 10053 or 10063 and one approved 20000-level art history course)
47

Art Requirements:

Drawing (10103, 10113) 6
Design (10123, 10133) 6
Approved Studio Art Elective 3
Photography (20743, 30753) 6
Art History (30833) 3
Graphic Design (20323, 20333, 20453, 30323, 30400, 30423, 30433, 30443, 30453, 30473, 30523, 40410, 40412, 40991) 39
Electives 14
Total 124


B.F.A. Degree with a Major in Art (Art Education emphasis)

University Curriculum Requirements
I.B. Mathematics
II.B. Political Science 10133
II.C.2 History 10603, 10613 or 10903, 10913
II.C.4 Survey of Art History 10053/10063
II.D.1 Speech 10123, 20103 or 20133
II.D.2 Six hours of English
47

Art Requirements:

Drawing (10103, 10113) 6
Design (10123, 10133) 6
Painting (20143) 3
Printmaking (20163/20173/20183) 3
Ceramics (20213) 3
Photography (20743) 3
Approaches to Studio Art (30013) 3
Art History (Upper Division) 3
Sculpture/Printmaking (Upper Level) 3
Elementary Art Ed (10803, 30803) 6
Secondary Art Ed (40803) 3
Art electives (Upper Level) 9
Education 24
Electives 2
Total 124


Departmental Requirements. A minimum 2.5 cumulative GPA in art is a required prerequisite to junior and senior level studio art, graphic design and art education courses. After entrance into upper division courses, a minimum 2.5 GPA must be maintained as a prerequisite to further advanced enrollment. An annual qualifying portfolio review is required for all students wishing to continue in the Graphic Design program, whether they are Graphic Design majors or not; the student may be required to repeat courses or be removed from the Graphic Design program.

Transfer Students. Transfer students must have a 2.5 minimum GPA in art and must present a portfolio or photographs or slides of their work for evaluation by the Art Department at least one week prior to registration or at time of advisement in order to determine level of competency.

Declaration of a Major. The department requires students to declare a major during or before the second semester of their sophomore year. Students majoring in Studio Art must also declare a concentration in Painting, Photography, Printmaking, or Sculpture. Students planning to major in Studio Art or Art Education must submit a portfolio of work to department faculty. A portfolio that meets with faculty approval is required before permission will be given to register in upper division classes. Students who do not meet departmental standards may enroll for Art 20970, Intermediate Studio, for up to 6 semester hours of credit to improve both grade point average and portfolio before making another submission to the faculty. Once an area of specialization is declared, a faculty adviser from that area will be assigned, and a sequence of courses to be taken will be formulated.

Student Exhibitions. Both graduate and undergraduate student exhibitions take place at various times during the year in the J.M. Moudy Building Exhibition Hall. No work may be removed from exhibitions without departmental approval. Students must claim their work at the end of each exhibition. The Department cannot accept responsibility for the care, storage, or distribution of student work.

Suggested Courses for the Freshman Year

Art Education Emphasis

FALL

Drawing 10103 3
Design 10123 or 10133 3
Writing Workshop 3
Historical Studies 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E. 1
Total 16

SPRING

Drawing 10113 3
Three Dimensional Design 10133 3
Religion 3
Historical Studies 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E 1
Total 16

Studio Art Majors

FALL

Drawing 10103 3
Design 10123 or 10133 3
Art History 10053 3
Writing Workshop 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E. 1
Total 16

SPRING

Drawing 10113 3
Design 10123 or 10133 3
Religion 3
Art History 10063 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E. 1
Total 16

Graphic Design Majors

semester hours

FALL

Art 10053 3
Drawing 10103 3
Design 10123 or 10133 3
Writing Workshop 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E. 1
Total 16

SPRING

Art 10063 3
Drawing 10113 3
Design 10123 or 10133 3
Religion 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E 1
Total 16

Bachelor of Arts. A major or a minor in Art History may be taken on the B.A. degree. The Art History program provides a broad undergraduate foundation in the humanities and the preparation necessary for professional careers in art. Potential careers open to Art History majors include teaching, research, art administration, art writing/criticism and museum and gallery professions.

The requirements for the major are Art 10053 and 10063, one 20000 level Art History course, plus 21 semester hours of additional Art History courses, including a minimum of 12 advanced hours. Additionally, 6 hours are required in studio courses (10103, 10113, 10123, 10133 or other courses approved by the department.) Majors are expected to enroll in a broad range of courses, including both pre-modern (pre-1800) and modern (post-1800).

Art History majors should pay particular attention to the language requirement - 6 semester hours at the 20000 level, or demonstrated proficiency. Those students intending to continue work at the graduate level should develop a proficiency in a second language-German, French, Italian or Spanish are recommended.

Suggested Courses for the Freshman Year

Art History Major

FALL

Art 10053 3
Modern Language 3 or 4
Writing Workshop 3
UCR course 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E. 1
Total 16 or 17

SPRING
Art 10063 3
Modern Language 3 or 4
UCR course 3
UCR course 3
Laboratory Science 3
P.E. 1
Total 16 or 17

Requirements for a Minor in Art History. Art 10053, one 20000 level Art History course, plus 15 semester hours of Art History courses (10063 is strongly recommended) to be determined by the student and approved by an Art History adviser.

Requirements for a Minor in Art. Three hours Art History (10000 or 20000 level) plus 15 semester hours of approved Art electives including a minimum of 6 advanced hours. Art minors seeking teacher certification must complete 24 hours (12 advanced) and include in their program 3 semester hours of Painting, 3 of Life Studies, 3 of Approaches to Studio Art, 3 of Secondary Art Curriculum, 6 of Art History and 6 of Ceramics and/or Printmaking and/or Sculpture and/or Photography.

Field Trips. Field trips may be required by instructors as a part of the content of any course. Every effort will be made to ensure that these trips do not conflict with other portions of the student's schedule.

Honors Program. Art and Art History majors who plan to pursue Departmental Honors must be members of the Honors Program and should enroll in ART 30003 during their junior year and ART 40003 during the fall semester of their senior year.

The following is a complete list of courses offered by this department. Go to Class Search on Registrar's Page to see which courses are being taught this semester.

Courses of Instruction


Studio Art

10103 DRAWING I. Drawing as a primary art form offers a thorough exploration of the art elements: shape, value, line and texture and the spatial relationship of these art elements. Analytic drawing, perspective drawing as well as expressive approaches are employed. The keeping of a sketchbook is required.

10113 DRAWING II. Prerequisite: 10103. Creative drawing based on visual experience and imagination. Assigned problems and experiments with a wide range of drawing materials, the use of mark-making tools and inventive exploration of media.

10123 DESIGN AND COLOR. Study and application of basic principles of creative design.

10133 THREE DIMENSIONAL DESIGN. Emphasis on use of three dimensional media, exploration of materials and introduction to some of the most widely used technical processes relative to contemporary 3-D artists.

20100 LIFE STUDIES. Prerequisites: 10103, 10113, or permission of instructor. Drawing, painting, figure or portrait modeling from the life model. (1-6 hours)

20143 PAINTING. Prerequisites: 10103, 10113. Basic painting procedures in oil and/or acrylic mediums. Introduction to techniques and material use.

20163 PRINTMAKING (Etching). Introduction to traditional and contemporary intaglio and relief materials as applied to metal plate etching, single and multi-plate color, collograph and photomechanical processes.

20173 PRINTMAKING (Lithography). Traditional and contemporary drawing materials used as an introduction to black and white lithographic printing from stones to plates. Emphasis on conceptual and expressionistic aspects of work.

20183 PRINTMAKING (Screenprinting). Introduction to basic applied and photomechanical stencil techniques. Emphasis on conceptual and expressionistic aspects of work.

20213 CERAMICS. Introduction to materials, methods and firing techniques. Wheel thrown and hand-built ceramics.

20243 SCULPTURE. Prerequisite: 10133 Basic introduction to concept and creation of sculpture with emphasis on bronze casting, welded steel, ceramics and wood.

20743 PHOTOGRAPHY. Basic introduction to equipment, materials and processes of photography. Emphasis on creative use of materials and visual imagination.

20970 INTERMEDIATE STUDIO. (Maximum 3 hours per semester). Directed individual problems to strengthen fundamental knowledge and skills required for advanced studio courses. (1-6 hours)

30003 JUNIOR HONORS SEMINAR Directed readings in art and art history.

30100 LIFE STUDIES. Prerequisite: 20100 or permission of instructor. Continuation of 20100. (1-6 hours)

30140 PAINTING. Prerequisite: 20143. Advanced problems in painting with emphasis on individual direction. (1-15 hours)

30150 ARTISTS' BOOKS. Prerequisites: Any 20000 level Art or Art History course or permission of instructor. Examination of the historical development of Artists' Books. It will include hands-on application of visual/verbal statements and present a mixed media alternative for artist from concept through execution. (3-6 hours, 3 hours maximum per semester.)

30160 ADVANCED PRINTMAKING. (Etching). Prerequisites: 20163/20173/20183, or permission of instructor. Intaglio and relief techniques used with emphasis on individual development of conceptual and experimental concerns through printmaking as a medium. (1-6 hours)

30170 ADVANCED PRINTMAKING. (Lithography). Prerequisites: 20163/20173/20183, or permission of instructor. Stone and plate lithographic technique employed with emphasis on individual development of expression. (1-6 hours)

30180 ADVANCED PRINTMAKING. (Screenprinting). Prerequisites: 20163/20173/20183, or permission of instructor. Applied and photomechanical stencil techniques used with emphasis on individual development of expression. (1-6 hours)

30210 CERAMICS. Prerequisite: 20213 or permission of instructor. Advanced ceramic technique; clay bodies, glazes, kiln operation, raku. (3 hours or less credit per class. May be repeated to accumulate 12 hours)

30220 CERAMIC SCULPTURE. Prerequisite: 20213 and/or permission of instructor. Use of ceramic materials on a greater scale as sculptural media. Problems of handling, glazing, firing; scale as sculptural media. (3 hours or less credit per class. May be repeated to accumulate 12 hours)

30240 ADVANCED SCULPTURE. Prerequisites: 10133 and 20243.Sculptural concepts, technical processes and translation of ideas into three dimensional situations. (Three hours or less credit per class. May be repeated to accumulate 12 hours).

30710 COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY. Prerequisite: 20743, JOUR 30233, or permission of instructor. Color photographic principles, theory, processes and practice. (1-6 hours)

30720 LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY. Prerequisite: 20743 or permission of instructor. Techniques, methods for producing photographs under outdoor and "field" conditions. Emphasis on history and practice of landscape photography, its role in the history of the American West and its position in contemporary American Art Photography. (1-6 hours)

30730 ZONE SYSTEM PHOTOGRAPHY. Prerequisite: 20743 or permission of instructor. Use of sensitometry to produce negatives using the zone system. Production of materials using non-silver as well as photo silver processes. (1-6 hours)

30743 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAIT. Prerequisite: 20743 or permission of instructor. Portrait photography fundamentals including lighting, equipment, social and psychological aspects of human representation, and business aspects of professional photography.

30753 PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION. Prerequisite: 20743 or permission of instructor. Taking, printing, layout and presentation of photographic materials related to projects in commercial art.

40003 SENIOR HONORS PROJECT. Directed research projects in art and art history.

40970 SPECIAL PROBLEMS. Directed individual problems beyond the scope of regular courses in each of the art specialties. Note: No student may enroll for a Special Problems course without first discussing the nature of the intended studies and obtaining written permission of the instructor. (1-18 hours)

40991 SENIOR EXHIBITION. All majors are required to exhibit selected work from their specialty area. The successful completion of this requirement is a prerequisite for graduation.


Critical Studies

30903 SEMINAR IN ART PROFESSIONS. Prerequisite: Junior standing in Art. The seminar will address specific professional issues such as photography of fine art, compiling slide portfolios, resume formats, exhibition preparation, exhibition venues, the role of museums and galleries, financial concerns and graduate school.

Graphic Design

20323 TYPOGRAPHY I. Prerequisites: 10103, 10123. Basic techniques and applications of standard graphic design methods.

20333 TYPOGRAPHY II. Prerequisite: 20323. Advanced processes and design problems in graphic design.

20970 INTERMEDIATE STUDIO. (Maximum 3 hours per semester). Directed individual problems to strengthen fundamental know-edge and skills required for advanced graphic design courses. (1-6 hours)

30323 TYPOGRAPHY III. Prerequisites: 20323, 20333 or permission of instructor. Continued exploration of design process with emphasis on visual perception and communication of information.

30400 ILLUSTRATION. Prerequisites: 10103 and 10113 or permission of instructor. Introduction to and exploration of current, creative illustration techniques and media. (3-15 hours, 3 hours maximum per semester.)

30423 PUBLICATION DESIGN. Prerequisites: 20323/20333 or permission of instructor. Complete range of design, layout, illustration, art preparation for book, magazine, news media publication.

30433 PACKAGE DESIGN. Prerequisite: 30323. Exploration of package design, packaging graphics and on-site promotion.

30453 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS TO GRAPHIC DESIGN. Prerequisite: 20323, 20333. A practical study of the most current applications of electronic technology in the field of graphic design that will provide the technical skills necessary to master the computer as an art and communication medium.

30473 ADVANCED COMPUTER APPLICATIONS TO GRAPHIC DESIGN. Prerequisite: 30453 or permission of instructor. Aesthetic exploration of advanced design and rendering software.

30523 ADVERTISING DESIGN. Prerequisite: 20333 or permission of instructor. Creative communication within the limitations of specific media.

30533 ADVANCED ADVERTISING DESIGN. Prerequisite: 30523. Exploration of agency procedures with emphasis on problems involving design of print ads and campaigns.

40300 PROBLEMS IN GRAPHIC DESIGN. Prerequisites: Advanced standing in the major and permission of instructor. Special problems in communication graphics. (1-6 hours)

40410 GRAPHIC DESIGN INTERNSHIP. Prerequisite: Senior standing and 3.0 GPA in major. On-the-job training in agencies, design studios, in-house departments, etc., which can provide students with valid educational opportunity to extend classroom experience. (3-6 hours)

40412 PORTFOLIO AND MARKET. Prerequisite: Senior standing in graphic design. Assembly of portfolio; presentation techniques; competencies; the state of the market and preparation for employment opportunities.

40970 SPECIAL PROBLEMS. Directed individual problems beyond the scope of regular courses in graphic design. Note: No student may enroll for a Special Problems course without first discussing the nature of the intended studies and obtaining written permission of the instructor. (1-18 hours)

40991 SENIOR EXHIBITION. All majors are required to exhibit selected work from their specialty area. The successful completion of this requirement is a prerequisite for graduation.


History of Art

10053 SURVEY OF ART HISTORY: PREHISTORY - LATE MEDIEVAL. A survey of the visual arts created in western Europe and the Near East from prehistoric times through the 14th century.

10063 SURVEY OF ART HISTORY: RENAISSANCE - CONTEMPORARY. A survey of the visual arts created in western Europe from the Renaissance to the present day.

20003 THE CLASSICAL TRADITION IN ART. Focusing on the visual arts of ancient Greece and Rome, this course surveys the impact, importance and influence of classicism on art from Antiquity to Postmodernism.

20013 EGYPTIAN ART. A survey of Egyptian art and architecture from the Pre-Dynastic period through the Roman Domination.

20063 MEDIEVAL ART. A survey of major Medieval works-architecture, painting, sculpture, religious objects, and illuminated manuscripts-dating from the 3rd century through the 14th century.

20073 BRITISH ART: MEDIEVAL TO MODERN. A survey of British Art from the Middle Ages through the Modern era.

20103 17th AND 18th CENTURY EUROPEAN ART. Survey of European art during the 17th and 18th centuries with emphasis on major stylistic and thematic developments in painting, sculpture and architecture. Artists studied include Caravaggio, Poussin, Bernini, Rubens, Rembrandt, Velasquez, Vermeer and Watteau.

20113 A NEW WORLD: SURVEY OF AMERICAN ART. Survey of American art from its colonial beginnings to the present day. Emphasis is placed on analyzing works of art critically and examining them in light of their historical and social contexts.

20303 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY ART. A survey of the traditions and significant changes that characterized the visual arts during this fertile period in the history of art.

20503 SURVEY TOPICS IN ART HISTORY. Occasional courses offering broad surveys of topics, such as the history of landscape painting, portraiture, and public sculpture. Courses may relate to and take advantage of special museum exhibitions.

20603 ART HISTORY ON SITE. This travel course surveys the visual arts from ancient times to the present by examining actual works of art and architecture on site.

30003 JUNIOR HONORS SEMINAR. Directed readings in art and art history.

30113 AMERICAN ART TO 1913. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. A study of the visual arts from the colonial period to the advent of modernism with the Armory Show.

30123 AMERICAN ART 1913 TO PRESENT. Prerequisite: 30113 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. A study of 20th-century visual arts in the United States.

30173 EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ART. Prerequisites: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Painting, sculpture, and architecture in 14th and 15th century Italy. Emphasis on Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Ghiberti, and Brunelleschi. Creative abilities of the Renaissance artist of the 14th and 15th centuries.

30183 HIGH AND LATE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ART. Prerequisites: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course or permission of instructor. 16th century art and architecture in Italy. Special attention to Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, and Titian, with consideration of the changing role of the artist in Italian society.

30193 SYMBOL AND REALITY: RENAISSANCE ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE. Prerequisite: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Painting and printmaking in Germany and the Netherlands from the 14th through the 16th centuries. Artists studied include Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden, Breugel, Holbein, and Durer.

30203 17th CENTURY ITALIAN AND SPANISH ART. Prerequisite: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Examination of stylistic, cultural, historical aspects of painting, sculpture and architecture of Italy and Spain in the 17th century. Artists studied include Caravaggio, the Carracci, Bernini, Borromini, and Velasquez.

30213 OLD MASTER DRAWINGS. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. The history and technique of drawings from the 15th through 18th centuries. Emphasis on Raphael, Michelangelo, Rubens and Rembrandt. The class will be scheduled to coincide with traveling exhibitions of drawings at the Kimbell Art Museum.

30333 MODERN ART I: ROMANTIC CLASSICISM TO IMPRESSIONISM. Prerequisites: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course or permission of instructor. Movements in European art from 1750 to the 1880's.

30343 MODERN ART II: POST-IMPRESSIONISM TO SURREALISM. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. European art movements from the 1880s to the 1940s.

30353 PICASSO: ARTIST OF THE CENTURY. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Examination of the art, life and influence of Pablo Picasso, who altered the course of the visual arts in our century.

30363 17TH CENTURY FLEMISH-DUTCH PAINTING. Prerequisite: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. A study of Netherlandish painting during the Golden Age of Rembrandt and Rubens.

30413 WOMEN AND THE VISUAL ARTS, 1500-1800. This class will examine the evolving roles of women as artists, patrons, and subjects in the visual arts in Europe during 1500-1800, with emphasis on the social, economic, and political context that shaped attitudes towards gender.

30500 SPECIAL TOPICS IN ART HISTORY. Prerequisite: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Independent studies and occasional courses are offered. Such courses may include: Indigenous Arts of the Americas, British Painting, American Architecture, History of Art Criticism, and European Study. (1-6 hours)

30600 ART STUDY ABROAD. Prerequisite: 10053 and 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. An intensive, on-site study of art and architecture in foreign lands. Sites have included Europe, the former Soviet Union, Greece, Egypt, China and the South Seas. Includes pre-travel lectures with slides. (1-12 hours) Note: Art history and art studio majors should consult with their advisers before enrolling, since credit hours applicable to their degrees may be limited.

30603 ART SINCE 1945. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Aspects of recent styles in relation to historic origins.

30613 MODERN ARCHITECTURE: 1750 TO THE PRESENT. Prerequisite: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course or permission of instructor. Architectural styles, movements, and personalities from 1750 to the present.

30623 HISTORY OF THE PRINT. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Examination of historical development of the graphic arts from earliest phases to modern prints.

30633 ART IN THE METROPLEX. Prerequisite: 10053 or 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. Focus on exhibitions and collections in the Metroplex galleries and museums.

30823 HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. History of photography with emphasis on its development.

30833 HISTORY OF GRAPHIC DESIGN. Prerequisite: 10063 and one 20000 level course, or permission of instructor. History of graphic design with emphasis on 19th and 20th centuries.

40003 SENIOR HONORS PROJECT. Directed research projects in art and art history.

40970 SPECIAL PROBLEMS. Directed individual problems beyond the scope of regular courses in each of the art specialties. Note: No student may enroll for a Special Problems course without first discussing the nature of the intended studies and obtaining written permission of the instructor. (1-18 hours)

40980 DIRECTED STUDY IN ART HISTORY. Prerequisites: Permission of instructor. Study under faculty supervision which will emphasize writing and be applicable to the UCR Writing Emphasis requirement. Weekly meetings with instructor. (3-6 hours, maximum 3 hours per semester).


Art Education

10803 BASICS IN ART. Basic experiments with variety of materials and techniques. Fundamental aesthetic and expressive characteristics of visual arts. (6 hours per week; studio art supplies required)

20970 INTERMEDIATE STUDIO. (Maximum 3 hours per semester). Directed individual problems to strengthen fundamental knowledge and skills required for advanced studio courses. (1-6 hours)

30013 APPROACHES TO STUDIO ART. Basic craft techniques as a foundation for advanced study and as applicable to the classroom situation.

30803 THE CHILD AND VISUAL ARTS. Prerequisites: Junior standing in art, and permission of instructor. Theory and practice in techniques and methods for elementary school art program.

40803 ESSENTIALS OF THE VISUAL ARTS. Prerequisites: Junior standing in art, and permission of instructor. Theory and practice with techniques and methods for secondary school art program.

40970 SPECIAL PROBLEMS. Directed individual problems beyond the scope of regular courses in art education. Note: No student may enroll for a Special Problems course without first discussing the nature of the intended studies and obtaining written permission of the instructor. (1-18 hours)