Office of Graduate Studies and Research Courses of Instruction

Overview

Liberal Studies

Available on the Master of Liberal Arts degree. Administered by the Office of Graduate Studies and Research.

Master of Liberal Arts

The Master of Liberal Arts program is designed to offer graduate level education in the broad areas of liberal studies. It is a multidisciplinary, non-career oriented program that seeks to offer a wide range of educational opportunities to students of diverse educational backgrounds. The intent of the program is to make available to all college graduates an opportunity to satisfy their intellectual curiosity and to broaden their knowledge.

Prerequisites.
A bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited college or university is required for admission. Applications for admission are available in the Office of Graduate Studies and Research and on-line.

Program.
The M.L.A. degree requires successful completion of 30 hours of course work, at least 21 of which must be taken on a letter grade basis. Twelve of the 30 hours must be in M.L.A. courses designated "Perspectives on Society." Courses so designated will relate a liberal arts discipline to a) issues of contemporary American society, b) issues of culture or cultural diversity in America, c) other world cultures and societies. See the M.L.A. website for a list of "Perspectives on Society" core courses.

On-Line Program
. The M.L.A. Program offers courses that can be taken completely online.  These courses are open to all M.L.A. students.  If students wish, they can complete the entire M.L.A. Program exclusively online.  No distinction is made between regular courses and online courses in terms of degree requirements or in the actual granting of the degree.

Pass/No Credit.
At the election of the student, M.L.A. courses can be taken on a pass-no credit basis; however, no more than 9 hours taken on a pass/no credit basis will count toward the M.L.A. degree. No more than 6 of the first 9 hours in the program can be taken on a pass/no credit basis.

Independent Study.
Students may pursue travel/study courses by taking an independent study course (MALA 60970) under the supervision of an M.L.A. instructor. In order to take an independent study course, a student must follow certain guidelines which are available from the Office of Graduate Studies and Research. No more than six hours of independent study may count toward the degree.

Transfer Credit.
Any request for transfer credit must be made on the appropriate form available in the Office of Graduate Studies and Research. An official transcript of the graduate work must be mailed from the registrar's office directly to TCU. Credit may be requested only for courses broad enough in content to meet the philosophic intent of the M.L.A. program. All requests are subject to approval by the M.L.A. Advisory Committee. No more than six hours of transfer credit will be accepted. Courses, other than M.L.A., completed at TCU cannot be applied toward degree requirements.

Courses.
Courses in the M.L.A. program are offered on a rotating basis. Classes generally meet in the late afternoon and weekday evenings; occasionally, day and Saturday classes are offered. M.L.A. courses are also offered during the various summer terms. The Office of Graduate Studies and Research publishes course descriptions for the following semester. Although new courses are added each year, the following is a list of courses that have been taught in recent years.

Courses of Instruction

MALA 60033 Outbreak: Infectious Diseases and World History. A broad, integrated view of infectious disease in humans within the context of society and history. Development of medical science and technology, effects of disease in society, and conduct and limitations of historical inquiry will be examined.

MALA 60043 Mass Media and Society. As the presidential election campaign gets into full swing, the role of the media will become increasingly important as news coverage, presidential debates, and election advertising bring this important issue to the public. Mass Media and Society will examine not only the presidential campaign, but also the impact of media on individuals, institutions, and community. Participants in this course will probe how and why the media developed the way it did, where the media is today, and where the media seems to be heading in the age of information. The class will explore the cultural context and norms of major media industries such as newspapers, magazines, books, radio, films, television, music recordings, public relations and advertising.

MALA 60053 The Asian Enigma: Modern China and Japan. An analysis of the civilization, culture and values of contemporary China and Japan with a view to explaining why each nation reacted so differently to Western impact and what each portends for America and the rest of the western world. The course stresses traditional Chinese and Japanese values, how they are manifested in everyday life as well as national and economic decision-making, and how these values are different from those held by most Americans.

MALA 60063 Literature of the American Southwest. The course will investigate the idea of a "sense of place" by working toward a definition of the "American Southwest." We will examine how authors evoke a distinctive sense of place by reading and discussing nonfiction books of travel (e.g., John Graves' Goodbye to a River or Richard Shelton's Going Back to Bisbee) and a range of fictional works representing several literary modes, ethnicities, and Southwestern perspectives.

MALA 60073 The Impact of Computers on Society. This is a non-technical introduction to what a computer is, how it functions, and how they are used in today's society. In addition to learning about the impact of computers, students will learn to use a browser to access the Internet.

MALA 60113 Myths and Legends: North American Indian Thought. Luther Standing Bear declares, "The Indian, by the very sense of duty, should become his own historian, giving his account of the race - fairer and fewer accounts of the wars and more of statecraft, legends, languages, oratory, and philosophical conceptions." This course is a survey of the legends and myths and the cultural-agricultural practices of the north American Indian tribes and nations with a focus on the nature of the self (person; tribe), the world (nature; cosmos), and their interreationship(s). These concepts are discussed and comparisons with Western philosophy are made when appropriate.

MALA 60123 Global Persuasive Campaigns, Their Influence and Impact. Global communications have created an international community exposed to persuasive campaigns, some advertising and some informational. This course will examine the influence and impact of global persuasive campaigns through an analysis of the structure of the campaign process and the use of images to create familiarity and experience. The ultimate impact and influence of such campaigns is highly variable, depending on the media in which they appear and the cultural context in which they are interpreted.

MALA 60133 The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. What is deviance? From a sociological perspective, deviance is a matter of social definition, interpretation, and reaction. This seminar examines the story of deviance, a story involving the struggle between rule breakers and those who seek to define them as outside normative boundaries. The goal is to introduce students to substantive topics and scholarly work within the sociology of deviance while providing an opportunity for discussion and critique. Special emphasis will be place on the interactional dynamics involved in defining and managing deviance and the development of deviant careers.

MALA 60143 Economics of Contemporary Issues. Basic concepts and tools used by economists and applications of those tools to analyze contemporary economic and social issues will be discussed. Included among the issues will be drug prohibition, tax reform, Social Security, the minimum wage, and environmental protection.

MALA 60153 Culture and American Cinema. An exploration of cinema as a form of American social expression. As cultural artifacts, films are produced in specific historical contexts by and for cultural groups. Films produced for American audiences reflect American values, myths, and behavior and thus constitute an important form of social expression. We will examine movies, which depict specific periods, people, and events of American history, and ask questions such as: How do we see ourselves and our history through films? Who are the 'heroes' we choose to portray onscreen? How have our notions of 'realism' changed over time?

MALA 60183 After Dictatorship: Can Latin American Nations Achieve Democracy?. The course challenges the facile assumption that because guerrilla wars have ended and the generals have turned power over to civilians, Latin America will necessarily "go democratic." The course focuses on the peace processes in selected Latin American countries in order to explore the serious challenges that confront nations seeking to democratize when they are saddled with deep legacies of authoritarianism.

MALA 60193 High Civilizations of the Americas: The Aztecs, the Incas, and the Maya. An examination of the beginning, development, and decline of the three major aboriginal cultures of the Western Hemisphere. The total culture of each civilization will be explored including religious, social, economic, and military factors. Post-conquest developments will also be examined.

MALA 60213 Contemporary Indigenous Literature of Mexico. A study of literary works by outstanding, contemporary writers hailing from a variety of Mexican indigenous ("Indian") ethnic groups: Nahuatl, Zapoteco, Yucatec Mayan, Mazateco, Trotzil, among others. The pre-Hispanic roots of this new literature will be examined, as will recurring themes and other ancient motifs which persist in today's writers. Short stories, poetry, and drama will be studied within their specific ethnic contexts, and also within a broader literary analytical framework. Recent English translations by Dr. Frischmann and his personal research experiences will make this course accessible to all MLA students.

MALA 60253 King Arthur Meets Queen Victoria: Arthurian Literature in the Victorian Age. An examination of the roots of current American interest in Arthurian legend in Queen Victoria reign. Students will read important literary works, including Alfred Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King, William Morris's "Defense of Guinevere," and Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, and explore the historical and political conditions surrounding the 19th-century medieval revival. The course concludes with a screening of Excalibur (1981) and discussion of its indebtedness to the Victorian era.

MALA 60263 The US Economy: Analysis and Outlook. The study of economics involves the learning of abstract theories about the workings of the economic system and the study of various policy tools that may be used to guide the economy toward specified targets. The course will focus on the historical development of the theories developed to explain our major economic issues, on the controversies surrounding these theories, and on the different policy conclusions that arise from different theories. The major economic issues on which the course will focus include inflation, unemployment, business cycles, economic growth and development, international trade deficits and surpluses, federal government budget deficits and surpluses, income distribution, and globalization.

MALA 60273 Economic Policy and Its Impact: A Simulation Approach. Computer simulation models will be used to learn important economic concepts and to analyze current economic problems. Students will assume the role of economic policymakers and as such will initiate policy changes and examine their effects on various aspects of the economy, such as the national output level, the inflation rate, the unemployment rate, and the distribution of income. No prior computer experience is necessary.

MALA 60283 A World of Weather: Fundamentals of Meteorology. Do you have a fascination with the Weather Channel? Are you interested in a non-mathematical treatment of the principles of meteorology and climatology? Students in this course will develop a working understanding of general meteorological and climatological processes, develop an understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these processes, and begin to understand how these factors influence the climate of a region. Basic information about the earth/energy system will pave the way for an examination of simple dynamic relationships, synoptic circulation, global climate and climate change.

MALA 60313 A New American Foreign Policy?. What foreign policy issues are on the horizon for U.S. policy makers? What should our foreign policy be as we enter the post 9/11 era? How should that foreign policy be made, and by whom? The domestic political environment facing U.S. foreign policy makers changed first after the Vietnam War and then again after the September 11th attacks. With the demise of the Cold War, the external political environment changed as well. This course will look forward to contemporary U.S. foreign policy on both the domestic and external levels. Domestically, the course addresses the various governmental and non-governmental actors who combine to produce foreign policy. Externally, it examines problems that revolve around specific issues (like terrorism and homeland security, the promotion of democracy, foreign trade, etc.) or around particular countries (Afghanistan, Russia, China, Mexico, Cuba, etc.).

MALA 60323 The New South, 1877 - Present. In this course the political, social and economic factors in the New South are examined with attention given to comparative regional history. Particular emphasis will be placed on historical interpretations, showing both the professional and lay image of the South in today's society. The economic modernization of the South will also be a major theme of the course.

MALA 60373 The Social Psychology of Crime and Victimization. This course introduces students to the central ideas in the field of social psychology and the significance of these ideas in providing explanations for criminal behavior and related phenomena. Additionally, classic social psychological theory and research are examined and utilized to understand offenders, victims and criminogenic environments. The course emphasizes the integration and application of course content to understand contemporary criminological issues such as the use of the death penalty for juveniles, treatment and control of sex offenders, criminalizing drug offenders, and the validity of repressed memory.

MALA 60403 Global Geopolitics. In a world subject to war, ethnic conflict, and economic disruption, to what extent does geography explain the unfolding of global events? How do access to waterways, the level of economic development, the blessings of natural defenses, and proximity to other nations determine the stance a country presents to the outside world? Geographer Dr. Jeffrey Roet will introduce geopolitical concepts that help explain conflict and change and show how geography is indeed the stage upon which history is set. He will reveal centuries-old patterns behind the dynamics of war, economic competition, and other current global concerns.

MALA 60423 Modern Mexico: A Nation in Crisis. The emergence of Mexico from colonial status to hemispheric leader and major force among "third-world" countries. Considerable attention is devoted to the Revolution of 1910 and the ongoing revolutionary process it initiated. The role of the United States in the emergence of modern Mexico is discussed in detail. The course concludes with an extensive examination of Mexico's role as a major oil producer and the current financial and economic crisis with which the country is contending.

MALA 60443 Contemporary Issues in Human Health. From the human genome project and cloning to hormone replacement therapy and antibiotic resistance, new issues involving human health as science discovers more about the causes and treatment of human diseases increasingly confront us. Our ability to manage our health depends on our understanding and appreciation of the biological concepts underlying these issues. This course will examine some of these contemporary issues and the underlying biological concepts through readings from a variety of Web resources.

MALA 60483 How the Civil War Was Lost: Problems in the Confederate High Command. This course examines the issues and problems involved within the Confederate government in selecting and using generals and in developing and implementing national strategy during the Civil War. Topics include the personal role of Jefferson Davis, the influence of Robert E. Lee, the problematic service of Braxton Bragg, P.G.T. Beauregard, and Joseph E. Johnston, among others. We will also explore the controversies among Confederate leaders between offensive and defensive strategy and between Virginia the western theater of the war.

MALA 60523 The Importance of Plants in Our World. An investigation into the aspects of plants that make them useful to people from an economic and social perspective. The structure, chemistry, genetics and ecology of plants will be examined. Products derived from flowers, seeds, fruits, stems, leaves and roots are analyzed in light of past, present and future needs of the world community.

MALA 60533 American Revolution: A Blessing or a Curse?. Today's headlines report the failure of revolutions with their civil wars, ethnic massacres, and palace coups. What constitutes a successful revolution? What lessons are there in the American experience? General Washington's startling words in 1783 express his anxiety for the problems of American state-building and give the title to a course that will examine the origins of those problems in the protest to British imperialism, the War for Independence, and the post-war challenges leading to the creation of the federal structure under the Constitution.

MALA 60553 Dilemmas in American Politics: Freedom, Order, Equality. The class will examine the perennial dilemmas between Freedom, Order and Equality especially as they pertain to political ideology and public policy. To understand the dilemmas, we will examine the basic structure of our government with special attention paid to the structural tensions that augment this dilemma. Next we will look at how the dilemmas surface in contemporary debate among liberals and conservatives and how the dilemmas impact the definition of policies in the United States. We will be discussing and debating a number of current issues that pit these three valued ideals against one another to better understand the positions presented by advocates on both sides of the policy debates and to illuminate our personal positions and views.

MALA 60573 Aesthetics of Film, TV, Radio Production. Understanding how media texts are created. The course provides a behind-the-scenes look at film, television, and radio, guiding students to a thorough understanding of the technological and stylistic options available to producers and directors. These options, in turn, form the palate from which directors and others construct mediated texts--the images, sounds, and dramatic tensions necessary for the successful execution of theatrical film, television, and radio. Examples will be taken from current film, television, and radio programming. Aimed at an educated consumer of the media, this course requires no previous experience in the media arts.

MALA 60593 Light, Color, and Space. Human beings receive over 80% of their information about the spatial environment through vision. The mechanism by which this visual environment is revealed to us is light. It is the quality of that light, in all of its manifestations, that has inspired mankind for thousands of years. Ranging from the philosophical statement "I see," which has more to do with the act of understanding than the process of seeing, to the psychological aspects of certain three dimensional visual illusions that work, based solely upon stored mental information on the location of our sun and the resultant cast shadows; light has both inspired and guided our relationships with the world that surrounds us. So strongly interwoven is this relationship that it passes for the commonplace. This course seeks to explore and clarify the inter-relationship between man and light. Individual/team investigations will concentrate on the use of light and color to create sophisticated themed environments. The TCU Center for Lighting Education will be used to support the actual demonstration of and investigations into the use of various types of electric lighting devised, ranging from simple track fixtures to computer controlled fixtures that can change color, lighting position, and pattern.

MALA 60613 Literature and Film: The Art of Adaptation. Time and again filmmakers turn to literature for inspiration; we have become accustomed to seeing favorite works of literature "translated" for the screen. This course will ask you to move past the initial reaction--Is the film better than the book, or vice versa?--to analyze the methods used in adaptation. How does each medium establish characters, develop mood and atmosphere, communicate emotions and thoughts? Furthermore, the course will examine how adaptations have been influenced by factors such as changing cultural attitudes and censorship.

MALA 60633 The Role of Capital in Domestic and International Economy. One of the least understood features of our economy is the nature of capital (physical and financial). Yet it plays a vital role in creating present employment and future productive capacity, and it grabs headlines through stock market fluctuations and international financial crises. This course both arms the student to differentiate among the confusing variety of uses of the term capital and explains what it can and cannot do in terms of world and domestic economic growth, social security financing, federal debt financing, and third world development.

MALA 60653 The People's Choice: American Presidents. A history of the issues, conflicts and personalities in the development of the American presidency. An examination of twelve selected presidential administrations from George Washington to the modern presidency will be conducted.

MALA 60673 The Jerusalem Jackpot: Understanding Israeli-Palestinian Conflicts. The struggle for control of Jerusalem and surrounding territories has made violence between Jews and Arabs a recurring phenomenon since the 1920s. The 1948 creation of an independent Israeli state only exacerbated the violence. This course examines contemporary conflict issues between Israelis and Palestinians against the context of a history of past conflicts. Focal points for the course are the underlying reasons for these conflicts, their conduct and resolutions to date, and the various efforts to promote a more lasting peace between Israelis and Palestinians.

MALA 60693 The Satiric Vision: From Jonah to Doonesbury. Study of the literary art of satire, including forms of satire, angles of satiric vision and examination of chief satirists' works and techniques.

MALA 60713 The History of War. In this survey we will seek to understand the influence of war in human history from ancient times to the present. This course will trace the causes and effects of war, the evolution of military technology, and the role played by leadership. To highlight these, we will discuss decisive military battles throughout history. Hopefully, by examining this process we will be able to understand ourselves and our world a little better.

MALA 60793 Public Health: Current Biological Issues. The course examines current biological issues in Public Health through lectures, readings, class discussion and debate. Issues such as vaccines, food safety, use of genetically modified plant crops, environmental toxins, bioterrorism and emerging diseases are examined.

MALA 60803 Pax Americana: United States Foreign Relations in the Twentieth Century. Now that the Cold War is over and the 20th century is coming to a close, how well did the United States fulfill its destiny of making the past hundred years the "American Century" that so many Americans predicted in the 1890s? This course offers some perspectives as answers by tracing the development of a global American foreign policy from the period following the Spanish-American War until the end of the Cold War. It also examines the forces - both foreign and domestic - that influenced those policies as the United States tried to formulate new diplomacies to meet each of the ever changing challenges in world affairs of this most dynamic century.

MALA 60903 British Humor from the Goons to the Young Ones. "British humor" as exemplified in popular culture by Monty Python's Flying Circus has gained recent acceptance in U.S., but is actually based on a long tradition that has its roots in the special love of wit, puns, paradoxes, and epigrams the English have manifested since the Viking invasions. Even though sensing the laughable and absurd is a universal trait, humor is expressed according to cultural differences and values of class, education, or special interest. Students in the course will look at British Humor on radio, TV, and film and attempt to define its unique attributes.

MALA 60953 Modern Astronomy: From the Origin of the Universe to Black Holes. An introduction to recent developments in astronomy and astrophysics: how the Universe began and how will it end, the age of the cosmos, the origin of galaxies, the birth, life and death of stars; stellar and galactic black holes, milisecond pulsars, supernovae, comets, and quasars, and the worlds of the solar system. Questions to be pondered include: Where and what is the missing mass? Are we alone in the Universe? Are we in danger from a comet colliding with earth? Where and how did life originate? The latest discoveries by the Hubble Space Telescope, Cassini, and other space missions are also discussed.

MALA 60970 Special Problems. Special problems in Liberal Arts.

MALA 61013 Themes in Prehistory: Fossils, Dinosaurs and Humans. Dinosaurs have held the public imagination for almost 200 years now. Beyond an intrinsic interest in animals that lived in an unimaginably distant time, dinosaurs and dinosaur paleontology figured greatly in the development of concepts of geologic time and biology from the Renaissance on and are still centered in the public's appreciation of 'science'. This course will take students through a tangled web of emergent concepts of time, organisms and 'public relations' through the last 300 years or so, focusing on the tangible and intangible impressions that dinosaurs have made on modern civilizations.

MALA 61033 Dilemmas in American Politics: Freedom, Order, Equality. The class will examine the perennial dilemmas between Freedom, Order and Equality especially as they pertain to political ideology and public policy. To understand the dilemmas, we will examine the basic structure of our government with special attention paid to the structural tensions that augment this dilemma. Next we will look at how the dilemmas surface in contemporary debate among liberals and conservatives and how the dilemmas impact the definition of policies in the United States. We will be discussing and debating a number of current issues that pit these three valued ideals against one another to better understand the positions presented by advocates on both sides of the policy debates and to illuminate our personal positions and views.

MALA 61053 Parapsychology: Weighing the Evidence. The field of parapsychology includes phenomenon such as telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, ghosts and hauntings, spirit communication, and near-death experiences. The claim by many parapsychologists is that these paranormal occurrences have been studied with rigorous research methods, and that there is considerable evidence to support their existence. This course will weigh the evidence for parapsychology by tracing the history of psychical research from the dawn of spiritualism to the present day use of the ganzfeld technique. We will discuss the careers of famous psychics as well as the contributions of many noted parapsychologists. The methods and results from parapsychological studies will be evaluated in the context of the approaches used by researchers in the natural sciences. This course will address the following important issues: are testimonials useful evidence to support the existence of these phenomena; do fraudulent claims preclude acceptance of the field; can parapsychological research findings be replicated; do probability and chance help explain paranormal events; how have magicians and skeptics affected the perception of parapsychology in the scientific community and the general public. The objective of this course is to present perspectives from both "believers" and "skeptics" such that in the end, each student can make up his/her own mind as to the strength of the evidence.

MALA 61063 Light, Color, and Space. Human beings receive over 80% of their information about the spatial environment through vision. The mechanism by which this visual environment is revealed to us is light. It is the quality of that light, in all of its manifestations, that has inspired mankind for thousands of years. Ranging from the philosophical statement "I see," which has more to do with the act of understanding than the process of seeing, to the psychological aspects of certain three dimensional visual illusions that work, based solely upon stored mental information on the location of our sun and the resultant cast shadows; light has both inspired and guided our relationships with the world that surrounds us. So strongly interwoven is this relationship that it passes for the commonplace. This course seeks to explore and clarify the inter-relationship between man and light. Individual/team investigations will concentrate on the use of light and color to create sophisticated themed environments. The TCU Center for Lighting Education will be used to support the actual demonstration of and investigations into the use of various types of electric lighting devised, ranging from simple track fixtures to computer controlled fixtures that can change color, lighting position, and pattern.

MALA 61073 The Supreme Court's Greatest Hits. "The Supreme Court's Greatest Hits" is an online course featuring student/professor analyses of selections from the most important decisions of the United States Supreme Court in the last fifty years. The topics to be covered during the term include: 1) Freedom of expression, 2) Freedom of religion, 3) Reproductive Freedom, 4) Discrimination based on gender, 5) Discrimination based on sexual orientation, 6) Pornography and the legal test for obscenity, and 7) Highlights from the criminal justice system. Student discussion leaders will be assigned to lead threaded discussions for each of the 27 cases we study, depending on enrollment, this will amount to four times during the term that a student will lead threaded discussions. Topics will run for one, two or three weeks during the term. The course will utilize a CD-ROM disk developed by Professor Jerry Goldman of Northwestern University. Installation of the disk on the hard drive of your computer will bring you the recorded oral arguments made before the Supreme Court of the United States and oral announcements of decisions for the cases included by Professor Goldman on the disk. The disk also contains the full text of the opinions issued by the Court on the included cases.

MALA 61083 The Wild West. Well...was it? When? To whom? What tamed it? This course will wrestle these questions by surveying the history of the trans-Mississippi West from contact to the present (possibly into the future) and considering the significance, or insignificance, of frontiers in American History. Students will read a textbook and analyze the West through extensive use of web sites and representations in popular culture, especially films.

MALA 61093 Profiles in Courage: Cinematic Studies of Greatness. This MALA course capitalizes on great films to investigate the lives of people who achieve greatness. Films such as Amadeus, Braveheart, Glory, Lawrence of Arabia, Patton, and Schindler's List are used as laboratories for studying the principles of greatness as played out in the lives of heroes, creators, commanders, and statesmen. Although the domains of greatness vary, from music to politics to the battlefield, many of the essential ingredients are the same. Chief among these is courage, which Ernest Hemingway defined as "grace under pressure." (Note: Students enrolled in this eCollege course must have access to a video source, either a library or a video outlet such as Blockbuster.)

MALA 61103 Psychology of Sex, Violence and Aggression. Teaches students how to think critically about psychological research on sex, violence, and aggression. The course goal is to educate intelligent consumers of media information and misinformation, teaching them to separate scientifically valid from invalid claims that such factors as genetics, biochemistry, socialization practices, sex differences, ambient temperature, alcohol, television, movies, and video games affect interpersonal violence and aggression.

MALA 61113 American Stages: A History of Theatre in the United States. The United States has a rich theatrical and dramatic heritage often hidden in the shadow of our colonial connection to England and dismissed by the Puritan ideology and ethics that formed the basis of our government. This web-based course shall explore that rich heritage through an in-depth look at the people, historical situations and the drama literature that reflected the growth of this country from our colonial beginning to its maturity as a world leader in the 20th century.

MALA 61123 Global Persuasive Campaigns, Their Influence and Impact. Global communications have created an international community exposed to persuasive campaigns, some advertising and some informational. This course will examine the influence and impact of global persuasive campaigns through an analysis of the structure of the campaign process and the use of images to create familiarity and experience. The ultimate impact and influence of such campaigns is highly variable, depending on the media in which they appear and the cultural context in which they are interpreted.

MALA 61133 Aspects and Issues: Health Care Delivery. The course examines the various aspects of health care delivery in the United States and other countries. The course will provide the student with a critical analysis and overview of health care delivery focusing on factors impacting its access, quality and cost.

MALA 61143 Mass Media and Society. As the presidential election campaign gets into full swing, the role of the media will become increasingly important as news coverage, presidential debates, and election advertising bring this important issue to the public. Mass Media and Society will examine not only the presidential campaign, but also the impact of media on individuals, institutions, and community. Participants in this course will probe how and why the media developed the way it did, where the media is today, and where the media seems to be heading in the age of information. The class will explore the cultural context and norms of major media industries such as newspapers, magazines, books, radio, films, television, music recordings, public relations and advertising.

MALA 61153 Texas Political Leadership: Case Studies from the 20th Century. During the 20th Century and now into the 21st, Texas provided a large share of national leadership in the United States and had some groundbreaking participants in the political change of that century. In this class, we will examine ten of those political figures, including the five chamber leaders of the House from Texas (Speakers Garner, Rayburn, and Wright and Majority Leaders Armey and DeLay), the three presidents from Texas (Johnson, Bush, and Bush) and the two Supreme Court associations (Associate Justice Tom Clark and prospective Justice, as of this writing, Harriet Miers). We will also examine the career of John Tower as founder of the modern Republican Party in Texas, and Barbara Jordan as a groundbreaking public servant. The focus will be on techniques of political leadership and how they changed over the course of the 20th Century and into the 21st.

MALA 61173 Troubled Neighbors: US and Latin America. This course focuses on the imbalance of power that has existed historically between the United States and Latin America and the hemispheric problems that have resulted from that imbalance. From the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 to the military intervention in Haiti in 1994, the United States has asserted a leadership role in the hemisphere, often with little understanding of the impact its actions had on the less-powerful nations of Latin America. Most of the course is devoted to the 20th Century, and major issues are examined from both the U.S. and Latin American perspectives.

MALA 61183 Red, White and Green: United States Environmental History. This course will examine American history from the perspective of the complex relationships between humans and their environment from pre-literate times through the 21st century. Geographically, the course will be bounded by the limits of the present United States. During the term, we will address the following questions: How did the environment shape American history and influence various American societies? How have conceptions of the environment changed? Do humans interact with the environment any differently now than they did 600 years ago? How have environmental concerns shaped politics and political movements?

MALA 61193 Health Care and the Quality of Life. The course will examine the state of health care in the United States and explore how quality is defined in light of it. A brief overview of the structure and processes of health care delivery will be presented followed by a review of the various methods for defining and establishing quality in health care in our society. The role and influence of health care providers (medical and insurance companies) on individual choices will also be examined. Specific issues facing society related to health care decision-making will be reviewed and then related to how and who interprets the concept quality.

MALA 61203 Romantic Attractions and Close Relationships. Teaches students how to think critically about psychological research on romantic attraction and close relationships. The course goal is to educate intelligent consumers of media information and misinformation, teaching them to separate scientifically valid from invalid claims about the causes and consequences of initial romantic attraction, deepening close relationships, sex differences, problems that occur within close relationships, and effective versus ineffective strategies for resolving conflicts in close relationships.

MALA 61233 Controversial Environmental Issues. Our relationship with the Earth is changing at an unprecedented rate. The pace of change is accelerating not only from our advancing technology, but also from world population growth, economic growth, and increasingly frequent collisions between expanding human demands and the limits of the Earth's natural systems. It appears that catastrophe looms ahead unless major changes are made in a short period of time. Or does it? Fortunately, human beings are capable of changing their behavior and values, which are then reflected in changes in national and international priorities. Such changes happen when people are confronted with new information or new experiences. This is a discussion and debate style course. The objective is to introduce students to controversies in environmental policy and science. The readings, which represent the arguments of leading environmentalists, scientists, and policymakers, reflect a variety of viewpoints and have been selected for their liveliness and substance. They are organized topically around major areas of study within environmental studies, and include environmental ethics, water resources, energy, global climate change, and population.

MALA 61243 Ecological Principles of the Earth. This course will explore many aspects of the ecology of the earth. Ecology is the study of the interaction of organisms with their environment. The environment includes both physical (global air patterns, soils, etc.) and biotic (competition, predation, etc.) parameters. Specifically, the course will explore the paleohistory of the earth, biomes of the world, the physical forces of today's biosphere, the dynamics of natural communities and populations, and the global effects of man's presence on planet earth.

MALA 61253 Creative Writing: Advanced Fiction Writing. This is a course in fiction writing, where students will be expected to produce two full-length short stories or two chapters of a novel or novella (about 40-50 pages of writing). Our primary goal will be to provide each other - virtually - with a rigorous, supportive audience for our writing. To get to and through our fiction, we'll read contemporary fiction writing, both short stories and novels, and do shorter, focused exercises on setting, characterization, etc. to help us generate prose and understand how stories are put together. In addition to reading and writing fiction, primary responsibilities of this course will involve careful reading and responding to texts we read, student writing, attending a reading in your community, and reviewing a literary journal. While I will respond extensively to drafts and revisions, as a member of the class you'll assume the responsibility of responding to writing by your classmates.

MALA 61263 The US Economy: Analysis and Outlook. The study of economics involves the learning of abstract theories about the workings of the economic system and the study of various policy tools that may be used to guide the economy toward specified targets. The course will focus on the historical development of the theories developed to explain our major economic issues, on the controversies surrounding these theories, and on the different policy conclusions that arise from different theories. The major economic issues on which the course will focus include inflation, unemployment, business cycles, economic growth and development, international trade deficits and surpluses, federal government budget deficits and surpluses, income distribution, and globalization.

MALA 61273 Ethics, Mental Health & Society. Contemporary approaches to the study of mental health emphasize disorders of the brain as the source for abnormal thinking and behavior. This course examines the ethical considerations inherent in this approach as it applies to the development of new treatments. The major objectives of the course include: an understanding of the journey from basic to clinical research; a familiarity with the ethical issues surrounding animal and human clinical research; the challenges that come with industry-sponsored research; and the ethical concerns with proposed treatments for psychological disorders in the future that may include cloning, gene-therapy, and stem cell research.

MALA 61283 A World of Weather: Fundamentals of Meteorology. Do you have a fascination with the Weather Channel? Are you interested in a non-mathematical treatment of the principles of meteorology and climatology? Students in this course will develop a working understanding of general meteorological and climatological processes, develop an understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of these processes, and begin to understand how these factors influence the climate of a region. Basic information about the earth/energy system will pave the way for an examination of simple dynamic relationships, synoptic circulation, global climate and climate change.

MALA 61293 Leadership: An Historical and Literary Study. This course examines a broad spectrum of leadership issues through the study of historical and literary (both fictional and non-fictional) leaders in a wide variety of societies and historical eras. The study centers on the use of cases from the Hartwick Humanities in Management Institute. Because the cases all focus on well-known leaders, the case represents only a small fraction of the materials (books, movies, etc.) that are available to the student for his/her analysis. Additionally, the course challenges the student to view leadership from multiple perspectives (theoretical, as well as academic).

MALA 61303 Vietnam in War and Revolution. This course examines the causes and consequences of war and revolution in 20th century Vietnam. Concentrating on major events such as the Vietnamese anti-colonial movement, the 1945 August Revolution, Ho Chi Minh and Vietnamese Communism, the Franco-Viet Minh War, the roots of the U.S. involvement and the Amercian War in Vietnam, students explore modern Vietnamese history from a variety of perspectives: Vietnamese, American, and French. Course requirements include assigned readings, book and film critiques, a webliographic essay, and participation in threaded discussion.

MALA 61323 The New South, 1877 - Present. In this course the political, social and economic factors in the New South are examined with attention given to comparative regional history. Particular emphasis will be placed on historical interpretations, showing both the professional and lay image of the South in today's society. The economic modernization of the South will also be a major theme of the course.

MALA 61333 Terrorism at Home and Abroad. This course introduces the graduate students to the practices of terrorism--international and domestic--along with the history and motivations behind it. Particularly, the course will provide insight into terrorism from a historical, geographical, cultural, and ideological basis. Strategies to combat terrorism will also be explored. After completing this course, students will not only be familiar with a variety of terror groups and terrorist acts that have made the news, but will also have a deeper understanding of the hostilities and conflicts which give birth to terrorism around the world and at home.

MALA 61373 The Social Psychology of Crime and Victimization. This course introduces students to the central ideas in the field of social psychology and the significance of these ideas in providing explanations for criminal behavior and related phenomena. Additionally, classic social psychological theory and research are examined and utilized to understand offenders, victims and criminogenic environments. The course emphasizes the integration and application of course content to understand contemporary criminological issues such as the use of the death penalty for juveniles, treatment and control of sex offenders, criminalizing drug offenders, and the validity of repressed memory.

MALA 61383 The Politics of Emergency Management. This course will introduce students to the impact of natural and man-made disasters on society, as well as the principles and practices of modern emergency management efforts in the United States. This includes efforts in planning for disasters, mitigating disasters, responding to them, and recovering from them. An emphasis is placed on the role that FEMA and the department o Homeland Security play in the process.

MALA 61423 Modern Mexico: A Nation in Crisis. The emergence of Mexico from colonial status to hemispheric leader and major force among "third-world" countries. Considerable attention is devoted to the Revolution of 1910 and the ongoing revolutionary process it initiated. The role of the United States in the emergence of modern Mexico is discussed in detail. The course concludes with an extensive examination of Mexico's role as a major oil producer and the current financial and economic crisis with which the country is contending.

MALA 61523 Importance of Plants in Our World. Aspects of plants that make them useful to people from an economic and social perspective. The structure, chemistry, genetics and ecology of plants are examined. Products derived from flowers, seeds, fruits, stems, leaves and roots are analyzed in light of past, present and future needs of the world community.

MALA 61523 The Importance of Plants in Our World. An investigation into the aspects of plants that make them useful to people from an economic and social perspective. The structure, chemistry, genetics and ecology of plants will be examined. Products derived from flowers, seeds, fruits, stems, leaves and roots are analyzed in light of past, present and future needs of the world community.

MALA 61533 American Revolution: A Blessing or a Curse?. Today's headlines report the failure of revolutions with their civil wars, ethnic massacres, and palace coups. What constitutes a successful revolution? What lessons are there in the American experience? General Washington's startling words in 1783 express his anxiety for the problems of American state-building and give the title to a course that will examine the origins of those problems in the protest to British imperialism, the War for Independence, and the post-war challenges leading to the creation of the federal structure under the Constitution.

MALA 70013 Men, Women and Society: A New Definition of Roles. An examination of new ideas, data and theories to interpret changing roles of men and women in contemporary society.

MALA 70063 Light and Human Health. This course examines the relationship between light and human health. Topics will include: the aging visual system, light and the circadian system, yellow jaundice, vitamin D deficiency. A specific focus of the course will be "hands on" experiences of light as it is used for human health.

MALA 70073 Energy Resources, Alternatives, and Environmental Issues. A study of the distribution of the world's energy resources and a look at alternative sources of energy such as wind, tides, geothermal, synfuels, solar and nuclear power. Environmental issues including air and water pollution, solid waste, pesticides, toxic substances, etc., will be addressed as will new techniques for finding and evaluating earth resources utilizing satellite data and the internet.

MALA 70113 Native Peoples of the American Southwest. An overview of the Native Americans of the region from pre-contact times to the present. Relations and differences among native groups are emphasized as well as interactions with non-Indian groups. Efforts to "whiten" the native population ranging from Spanish missionary activities in the 16th century to the federal government's "termination policy" in the 1950s are analyzed.

MALA 70133 Contemporary Mexican Novels and Their Film Versions. This course examines three contemporary Mexican novels--The Old Gringo (1985), Like Water for Chocolate (1989), and Esperanza's Box of Saints (Santitos) (1999) and the film version of each book. We will discuss how the works treat crossing borders, and how society is presented differently in the two mediums--novel and film. Each work also studies the similarities and differences of the two countries (cultures) that seem destined to coexist, according to Alan Riding, as "distant neighbors."

MALA 70183 Mass Media and Perceptions of Reality. The complexity of our society makes it necessary for us to draw what we know, or think we know, from information about events, trends, and even people from the mass media. Yet few people are trained as consumers of information produced by the media. This course examines the various perceptions of reality that the mass media create, exploring some of the reasons why these perceptions occur.

MALA 70233 Rise of American Business. The evolution of the American business system is examined with emphasis on four basic themes: the impact of technological and managerial change, the interaction between business and society, the position of the businessman and businesswoman in society, and the constantly-changing relationships between business and government. Special attention is devoted to the contemporary business scene.

MALA 70253 War To Peace: Political Change in Cuba and Central America in the 1990s. An examination of the dramatic but low profile political transition taking place in countries that only recently were torn by revolution and by counterinsurgency wars. The original causes of those revolutions, including the Cold War ideological divisions that formed the international environment in which they took place will be discussed. We will examine the tentative, fragile steps that are presently being taken to overcome the authoritarian and violent political legacies of the past and to build a more inclusive, democratic political future.

MALA 70373 Modern American Society: Global Power since World War II. This "period" course in American history reviews major political, economic, social, cultural and diplomatic events: World War II, the Truman administration and post-war America, the Eisenhower administration and the consensus of the 1950s, the Kennedy administration, Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society, the civil rights movement, the Republican ascendancy, and the rise of southern power.

MALA 70393 Religion and Violence. This course explores the highly ambiguous relationship between religion and violence. It provides an overview of situations in the world today that are examples of this ambiguous relationship. Ethical teachings regarding violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are examined. Students are exposed to authors who seek to comprehend violent behavior using explanatory theories. Responses to 9/11/2001 written by a Jew, a Christian, and a Muslim are encountered. The goal is to allow students in the course to develop an understanding of various dimensions (ethical, social, psychological, political, and theological) of the relationship between religion and violence.

MALA 70453 Religious Cults, Sects, and Millennialism. This course provides cross-cultural perspectives on the rise, growth, decline, and societal impacts of religious revitalization movements. Readings, discussions, and audiovisuals focus on anthropologically studied cases of religious revitalization, with their prophetic figures and conversion processes, and the relationship of the movements to human struggles over meaning and social identity. The course generates critical insights into five major areas of religious movement inquiry: 1) ideas about how new religions originate, 2) types of new religious movements around the world, 3) dynamics of recruitment and conversion to movements, 4) life inside religious movements, and 5) research in the sectarian setting.

MALA 70473 Sinatra and Popular Culture. This course focuses on the cultural importance of Frank Sinatra, one of the most influential figures in 20th century entertainment. The course examines the Sinatra of recorded music, radio, Hollywood movies, and Las Vegas, politics, and organized crime. Through music, movies, and documentaries, the course explores the changing cultural landscape in the US from the 1930s through the 1980s.

MALA 70493 Do the Right Thing: Ethics in International Politics. The course examines the central question in international politics: What is the 'right' course of action in a given situation? Thus it considers various approaches to the study of ethics and morality as well as the ends pursued, the means used, and the importance of the decision-making strategies employed by policy makers.

MALA 70543 Fossils and Man: The Impact of the Fossil Record. Students will become acquainted with the impact that fossils and paleontology have had on the history of the earth. It was the fact that fossils were finally accepted as a record of ancient life that began to change the way that 17th century naturalists looked at the world. The fundamental notions of change and evolution of natural systems has forever affected man's view of the world and fossils, which, in particular, document "worlds before man." The history of interpretation of fossils in the argument for evolution, and the use of fossils in modern biology and geology will be examined.

MALA 70583 Understanding Laughter: Humor in Theory and Practice. Students who take this course will explore not only the theories that purport to explain why people laugh but also a number of practical, social, rhetorical, and psychological uses for wit and humor. The work of the course will revolve around readings of works about humor, analyzing works of humor, and writing essays related to this topic, including one essay in which students attempt to write humorously and then, using several theories of humor, analyze to what extent they have succeeded or failed.

MALA 70613 History Through Literature and Film: Latin America. This course covers both colonial and national periods of Latin American history through a combination of historical readings, fiction, and full-length feature films and videos. It aims at providing an overview of the past from the late fifteenth century to the recent present. Important institutions, processes, and themes will be studied. Students are presumed to have little or no knowledge of Latin American history and knowledge of the Spanish language is not required. Students will read both primary and secondary accounts of the events covered in the films and will be asked to assess the films in light of historical facts and interpretation and poetic license.

MALA 70653 The Second World War: Its Impact on the Contemporary World. A focus on the impact of World War II as the seminal event of the 20th century that gave rise to or influenced most major contemporary global issues. By examining the war in a broader perspective, issues such as the East-West balance of power, the end of traditional imperialism, the upheavals in the third world, and the proliferation of technology, the effect of the war 50 years later can be better understood and interpreted.

MALA 70673 American Cinema:Film Noir and the Detective Film. This course examines the cultural, narrative and critical impact of literary and cinematic forms of Film Noir and the Detective Film in the United States. The course introduces the student to the technical and aesthetic processes used in developing the style and form found in the American Cinema since 1941.

MALA 70683 The American Recording Industry:Technology and Cultural Impact. This course explores how the American popular music and recording industries and American popular culture have intersected in the years since the invention of audio recording and the impact of recorded music on the culture.

MALA 70693 Writing Life: Autobiography as Creative Nonfiction. Students who take this course will write three full-length pieces (8-12 pages each) of creative nonfiction based on incidents that have occurred in their lives. Students will read selected works of creative nonfiction and from three textbooks on writing (Ann Lamott's Bird by Bird: Some Instructions on Writing and Life, Phillip Lopate's The Art of the Personal Essay, and Mary Catherine Bateson's Composing a Life). The work of the course will revolve around writing the three pieces, reading and responding to fellow students' pieces online, and analyzing reading assignments from the textbooks.

MALA 70703 American Music and Culture: From Jazz to Tin Pan Alley. A study of the historical evolution of jazz styles in the United States from the 1890s through the contemporary scene, including American popular music Tin Pan Alley, protest music, and motion picture/television music. Included is an examination of the correlation of musical styles and cultural changes in America.

MALA 70713 Physical Fitness as a Lifestyle. The physiological changes that take place in the body as a result of acute and chronic exercise. Specifically, the concepts of physical fitness, conditioning programs, wellness, body composition, nutrition, risk factor reduction and the influence of exercise on disease and aging are investigated.

MALA 70733 Science, Scientists and Society. Science, Scientists and Society is a cross-disciplinary course in the natural sciences. It will acquaint you with the workings of science and scientists by examining recurring themes and selected episodes of science. We will consider the nature of the scientific enterprise and how science differs from or is similar to other areas of human endeavor, such as art, religion, philosophy, economics, etc. After taking this course you will have a better understanding of science and how it works and of the complex relationship between science and the intellectual, cultural and social milieu in which it is practiced. You will learn the nature of scientific explanation and the limits of scientific understanding.

MALA 70743 Creative Writing: Advanced Poetry Writing. This is an advanced poetry writing workshop that focuses primarily on the students' own work. Special attention is paid to invention, point-of-view, voice, form, metaphor, and dramatic development. Students and instructor discuss student work in the context of principles that emerge through short lecture and the study of exemplary historical and contemporary models.

MALA 70753 Poetry and Contemporary American Culture. This course focuses on the major developments in American poetry from 1945 to the present to address these central questions: How well does poetry address the needs, concerns, and anxieties of contemporary American culture? Have international crises, domestic political and cultural shifts, and the proliferation of electronic media rendered poetry obsolete, or does poetry still hold particular promise in terms of its ability to shore crumbling values or, better, to envision a new ethics, one more responsive to the complexity of our times?

MALA 70763 Geopolitics and World Communications. The study of global communications in the context of world politics. Overview of world mass media characteristics, impact of British colonialism, role of the United Nations, the New World Information Order, ownership of communication technology, issues in monopoly of knowledge, analysis of information flow and world economy and role of image-makers.

MALA 70773 History of Media Sex and Violence. This course examines the history of sex and violence in film and on television. topics that may be covered include efforts to regulate or restrict film and television program content, how formerly taboo topics relating to sex and violence have been presented in film or on television, how media companies attempt to profit by presenting sex and violence in film and on television, what the manner in which sex and violence are presented in film and on television tell us about the society of the time, and how the First Amendment limits government regulation of film and television content.

MALA 70813 The Cold War at Home and Abroad. From the end of the Second World War in 1945 until the collapse of the Soviet Union forty-five years later, the Cold War dominated the domestic and foreign affairs of the United States. This course examines the origins of the Cold War and some of the consequences, including the development and application of the containment policy, McCarthyism, the wars in Korea and Vietnam, various other interventions, the debates over diplomatic issues, and the various strategies employed by different presidential administrations. Students will have a chance to do some reading on these subjects and to discuss them. Also they will view episodes from CNN's production, "The Cold War". The requirements consist of short weekly papers based on the readings and also a kind of term project, a five-seven page critique of John Lewis Gaddis' book, We Now Know. The others readings are T.G. Paterson and J.G. Clifford, America Ascendant: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1939 and R.J. McMahon and T.G. Paterson, The Origins of the Cold War, 4th ed.

MALA 70843 The Ethics of Communication. An examination of contrasting models and standards of communication ethics. Students apply these perspectives to specific situations in politics, advertising, interpersonal communication and writing.

MALA 70873 Garage Sale History. The course explores 20th century American culture through examining the ordinary objects of our lives, from A-1 Sauce to Zippo lighters, studying how, when, and why ordinary objects rise from the culture and in turn, give shape and character to both culture and personal identity.

MALA 70903 Preparing for the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. The last two decades of the 20th century ushered in tumultuous changes in the economic, social, and political landscape. These transformations would have an indelible impact on the emerging society of the 21st century. This course is designed to provide a forum for analysis and discussion of some of the most significant issues of global politics in the new Millennium. While the attempt is to dissect these issues primarily on their own terms, we also discuss the challenges they pose to the United States and the global community.

MALA 70923 Islam and Politics in the Middle East. Since there is no separation between state and church in Islam, no study of the Muslim World is complete without analyzing the pervasive role of Islam in cultural and political life. The course, however, does not concentrate on Islamic theology; rather, the focus is on politics of Islam and how it molds political discourse and agenda. After the study of origins and historical development of Islamic political theory, the focus would shift to explaining the use of post-World War II Islamic revival. In this connection, the problematics of democratization in the Muslim world and the prospects for Islamic governments are discussed.

MALA 70933 Food and Philosophy. Philosophical examinations of moral, aesthetic, ontological, and epistemological issues concerning food are topics studied and discussed in this course. Such issues as vegetarianism; ethical issues regarding food additives, food politics and feminism; food as art; food as a metaphor of life; cultures (e.g., Mayan and Japanese) characterized by their cuisine; and recipes as a model of justified rational procedures are covered during the semester. One of the key concepts developed to handle these issues effectively is foodmaking as a thoughtful practice, where "practice" is understood by the American pragmatists, Peirce and Dewey.

MALA 70943 Ancient Mysteries: Real and Imagined. In addition to providing an overview of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern History from the Paleolithic age to the fall of Rome, this course explores in some detail various controversial topics that have generated popular interest and often engendered misinformation. These topics are analyzed in a scholarly manner in order to solve the "mystery" or expose common mis-perceptions and pseudo-scholarship. Typical topics include the following: the fall of Rome, the historical Jesus, other Biblical topics, the pyramids, the Neanderthal problem, and the search for the Trojan War.

MALA 70953 Mayan Ritual and Drama: Pre-Hispanic Times to the Present. This course will examine the frequently intertwined traditions of ritual and drama among Mayan peoples of Southern Mexico and Central America, from pre-Hispanic times to the present. The course will combine a historical perspective beginning with pre-Columbian documents and Spanish colonial chronicles. Twentieth-century manifestations will be particularly highlighted, based on the instructor's first-hand research; special emphasis will be given to the work of performance groups based in Yucatan and Chiapas, Mexico. Extensive video material will complement textual analyses.

MALA 70973 Law and Society. The examination of the relationship between legal institutions and social processes. Course readings and discussion will focus on the social and political nature of law; the creation and organization of law in modern societies; social functions of law; the limits of law as an instrument of social change; the legislation of morality; democracy, individualism and law; criminal behavior and individual rights; and the use of scientific information in law.

MALA 70983 Indigenous People of the Andes. A study of the indigenous inhabitants of the Andes, especially Peru and Bolivia, through archaeological and ethnographic data. Focus is on the development of agriculture and early population centers, particularly the Incas. The course ends with a study of contemporary Quechua and Aymara peoples, and discussion of current political and economic issues.

MALA 70993 Critical Issues in Criminal Justice. The major controversies that exist in law and criminal justice today are discussed with emphasis on the development of critical thought concerning these issues. Both empirical evidence and grounded theory is discussed in such a manner as to help the student formulate thoughtful opinion concerning the selected topics. Topics include but are not limited to: The Death Penalty, Gun Control, The Insanity Defense, Drug Legalization, Prison Privatization, Drunk Driving Laws, Myths of Organized Crime, Crime and the Media, Fetal Endangerment Statues, and The Jury System.

MALA 71393 Religion and Violence. This course explores the highly ambiguous relationship between religion and violence. It provides an overview of situations in the world today that are examples of this ambiguous relationship. Ethical teachings regarding violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are examined. Students are exposed to authors who seek to comprehend violent behavior using explanatory theories. Responses to 9/11/2001 written by a Jew, a Christian, and a Muslim are encountered. The goal is to allow students in the course to develop an understanding of various dimensions (ethical, social, psychological, political, and theological) of the relationship between religion and violence.

MALA 71733 Science, Scientists and Society. Science, Scientists and Society is a cross-disciplinary course in the natural sciences. It will acquaint you with the workings of science and scientists by examining recurring themes and selected episodes of science. We will consider the nature of the scientific enterprise and how science differs from or is similar to other areas of human endeavor, such as art, religion, philosophy, economics, etc. After taking this course you will have a better understanding of science and how it works and of the complex relationship between science and the intellectual, cultural and social milieu in which it is practiced. You will learn the nature of scientific explanation and the limits of scientific understanding.

MALA 71813 The Cold War at Home and Abroad. From the end of the Second World War in 1945 until the collapse of the Soviet Union forty-five years later, the Cold War dominated the domestic and foreign affairs of the United States. This course examines the origins of the Cold War and some of the consequences, including the development and application of the containment policy, McCarthyism, the wars in Korea and Vietnam, various other interventions, the debates over diplomatic issues, and the various strategies employed by different presidential administrations. Students will have a chance to do some reading on these subjects and to discuss them. Also they will view episodes from CNN's production, "The Cold War". The requirements consist of short weekly papers based on the readings and also a kind of term project, a five-seven page critique of John Lewis Gaddis' book, We Now Know. The others readings are T.G. Paterson and J.G. Clifford, America Ascendant: U.S. Foreign Relations since 1939 and R.J. McMahon and T.G. Paterson, The Origins of the Cold War, 4th ed.

MALA 71843 The Ethics of Communication. An examination of contrasting models and standards of communication ethics. Students apply these perspectives to specific situations in politics, advertising, interpersonal communication and writing.

MALA 71903 Preparing for the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century. The last two decades of the 20th century ushered in tumultuous changes in the economic, social, and political landscape. These transformations would have an indelible impact on the emerging society of the 21st century. This course is designed to provide a forum for analysis and discussion of some of the most significant issues of global politics in the new Millennium. While the attempt is to dissect these issues primarily on their own terms, we also discuss the challenges they pose to the United States and the global community.

MALA 71943 Ancient Mysteries: Real and Imagined. In addition to providing an overview of Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern History from the Paleolithic age to the fall of Rome, this course explores in some detail various controversial topics that have generated popular interest and often engendered misinformation. These topics are analyzed in a scholarly manner in order to solve the "mystery" or expose common mis-perceptions and pseudo-scholarship. Typical topics include the following: the fall of Rome, the historical Jesus, other Biblical topics, the pyramids, the Neanderthal problem, and the search for the Trojan War.

MALA 71973 Law and Society. The examination of the relationship between legal institutions and social processes. Course readings and discussion will focus on the social and political nature of law; the creation and organization of law in modern societies; social functions of law; the limits of law as an instrument of social change; the legislation of morality; democracy, individualism and law; criminal behavior and individual rights; and the use of scientific information in law.

Texas Christian University